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Epstein-Barr Virus-negative Marginal Zone Lymphoma as an Uncommon Form of Monomorphic Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

Galera, P.; Flavin, R.; Savage, N. M.; Saksena, A.; Gong, S.; Wang, H. Y.; Swan, N.; Xi, L.; Raffeld, M.; Pittaluga, S.; Jaffe, E. S.

Am J Surg Pathol. 2020 Jun 20

Abstract

Monomorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders have been defined as lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations that fulfill criteria for one of the B-cell or T/NK-cell neoplasms recognized in immunocompetent hosts in the current WHO Classification. Low-grade B-cell neoplasms have historically been excluded from this category, although rare reports of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) have been described. We report 9 cases of posttransplant Epstein-Barr virus-negative MZL, all arising in solid organ transplant recipients (4 renal, 3 liver, 1 cardiac, and 1 liver, pancreas, and small bowel). Seven were extranodal MZL of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, all of which had gastrointestinal involvement (4 colon, 1 duodenum, 1 stomach, and 1 oropharynx/base of tongue). Notably, the preferential involvement of intestine distinguishes posttransplant extranodal MZL from sporadic cases. Immunoglobulin light-chain restriction was seen in all cases, with polymerase chain reaction showing a monoclonal pattern in 7 of 8 cases with successful amplification of polymerase chain reaction products. A clonally unrelated recurrence was seen in one case. Next-generation sequencing identified recurrent mutations previously reported in MZL in 3/5 cases. MZL was diagnosed at least 1 year after solid organ transplant (median time to presentation, 84 mo; range, 13 to 108 mo). The median age was 44 (range, 9 to 73 y); the male: female ratio was 5:4. The mean follow-up was 33.4 months, with an indolent clinical course observed. A subset responded to reduction in immunosuppression and anti-CD20 therapy alone. These data support the designation of Epstein-Barr virus-negative MZL as an uncommon form of monomorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

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