Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children: Endoscopic Findings at Diagnosis and Post-intervention

Bolton, S. M.; Kagalwalla, A. F.; Wechsler, J. B.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2018 Mar 2; 20(1):4

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to present and summarize studies on endoscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), at diagnosis and in response to treatment, utilizing rigorous peer-reviewed literature in children wherever possible and to introduce a recently proposed standardized endoscopic evaluation system. RECENT FINDINGS: Gold standard of diagnosis and assessment of response to therapy in EoE requires multiple endoscopies with biopsies for histology, which allows for observation of the esophageal mucosa. Typical endoscopic findings in patients with EoE include edema, exudate, furrowing, concentric rings, and strictures. Endoscopic findings have been broadly characterized into inflammatory features (edema, exudate, furrowing) and fibro-stenotic features (rings, stricture), in order to better reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Recent studies suggest strong correlations between endoscopic findings, through composite scoring systems, and histology, and therefore may be helpful as part of disease surveillance. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classification system was proposed in 2013 as an outcome metric for standardization in reporting endoscopic signs of EoE. Subsequent studies support utility of composite scoring, which utility has similarly been seen in pediatric treatment trials. Endoscopy in children provides insight into the natural history of EoE, with progressively more fibro-stenotic features occurring over time, giving an additional perspective into esophageal remodeling and response to treatment. Recognition of typical endoscopic findings at diagnosis and upon repeat endoscopy has allowed a clinician to monitor visual changes in esophageal mucosal health. Further studies to assess the role of composite scoring in disease management are needed.

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