Objectives To determine the extent to which non-Latina White and African-American mother's gestational age is associated with extremely early (<30 weeks), modestly early (30-33 weeks), and late (34-36 weeks) infant preterm birth (PTB) rates. Methods Race-specific stratified and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on the Illinois Transgenerational Birth File of non-Latino White and African-American infants (born 1989-1991) and their mothers (born 1956-1976). Results White mothers (n = 184) born at <30 weeks had a greater extremely early infant PTB rate than White mothers (n = 131,980) born at term: 1.6 versus 0.5%, respectively; RR = 3.6 (1.2, 11.0). African-American mothers (n = 269) born at <30 weeks had a greater extremely early infant PTB rate than African-American mothers (n = 34,885) born at term: 4.1 versus 2.1%, respectively; RR = 2.0 (1.1, 3.6). In logistic regression models the adjusted (controlling for maternal age, education, parity, prenatal care, marital status, and cigarette smoking) OR of extremely early PTB for White and African-American mothers born <30 (compared to >/=37) weeks equaled 4.0 (1.2, 12.6) and 2.3 (1.2, 4.3), respectively. The adjusted OR of modestly early PTB for White and African-American mothers born 30-33 (compared to >/=37) weeks equaled 1.6 (1.0, 2.5) and 1.3 (0.9, 1.7), respectively. The adjusted OR of late PTB for White and African-American mothers born 34-36 (compared to >/=37) weeks equaled 1.2 (1.0, 1.3) and 1.1 (1.0, 1.2), respectively. Conclusions A generational association of extremely early, but not modestly early or late, PTB exists among non-Latino Whites and African-Americans.