Declining diabetes management and control are common as children progress through adolescence, yet many youths with diabetes do remarkably well. Risk factors for poor diabetes outcomes are well-researched, but fewer data describe processes that lead to positive outcomes such as engaging in effective diabetes self-management, experiencing high quality of life, and achieving in-range glycemic control. Resilience theory posits that protective processes buffer the impact of risk factors on an individual's development and functioning. We review recent conceptualizations of resilience theory in the context of type 1 diabetes management and control and present a theoretical model of pediatric diabetes resilience. Applications to clinical care and research include the development of preventive interventions to build or strengthen protective skills and processes related to diabetes and its management. The ultimate goal is to equip youths with diabetes and their families with the tools to promote both behavioral and health-related resilience in diabetes.