BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to compare outcomes between delayed repeat enema (DRE) and immediate surgery (IS) in children with ileocolic intussusception who fail initial enema reduction. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of children <6years-of-age from 2008 to 2012 in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. Outcomes measured were bowel resection, length of stay (LOS), and adjusted hospital costs (AHC). RESULTS: 4980 of 6889 (72.3%) children with intussusception were discharged without operation following a single successful enema. 1407 of 1909 (73.7%) remaining patients underwent IS while 502 (26.3%) had a DRE. Bowel resection was required in 372 of 1407 (26.4%) patients in IS group compared to 59 of 502 (11.8%) in the DRE group (p<0.001). The number of patients needed to treat by DRE to prevent a bowel resection was 7. In multivariable analysis, the IS patients had a 2.5 times greater likelihood of undergoing bowel resection than the DRE patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83-3.41, p<0.001). The DRE group had a mean LOS of 3.2days (95% CI 2.9-3.6) and mean AHC of $9205 (95% CI $7673-$10,735). The IS group had a longer LOS (4.4days, 95% CI 4.0-4.8, p=0.001) and higher AHC ($14,422, 95% CI $12,631-$16,214, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Delayed repeat enemas for ileocolic intussusception increase the success of nonoperative reduction, decrease the rate of bowel resection and reduce mean hospital length of stay and costs.