Continuous Glucose Monitoring Associated With Less Diabetes-Specific Emotional Distress and Lower A1c Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Vesco, A. T.; Jedraszko, A. M.; Garza, K. P.; Weissberg-Benchell, J.

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2018 Mar 30; 12(4):792-799

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial impact research of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is limited. The present study assesses associations between diabetes technology use on adolescent- and parent-perceived diabetes-specific distress and A1c. METHOD: Adolescents with T1D and parents (N = 1040; primarily mothers) completed measures of diabetes distress. Adolescents were categorized by technology use: CGM Alone, CSII Alone, CGM+CSII, or No Technology. ANOVA, regression, and Cohen's d were used for group comparisons on measures of diabetes distress and A1c. Analyses also compared groups on clinical elevations of distress. RESULTS: CGM use was associated with less adolescent distress compared to No Technology ( d = 0.59), CGM+CSII ( d = 0.26), and CSII Alone ( d = 0.29). Results were similar but with smaller effect size for parent-reported distress, although CGM+CSII showed equivocal association with parent distress compared to No Technology ( d = 0.18). CGM Alone was associated with lower A1c compared to No Technology ( d = 0.48), to CSII Alone ( d = 0.37), and was comparable to CGM+CSII ( d = 0.03). CGM+CSII conferred advantage over CSII Alone ( d = 0.34). Clinical elevation of distress was associated with not using any technology particularly for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Technology use is associated with lower adolescent distress than lower parent distress. CGM Alone is associated with lower adolescent and parent distress than CSII or CGM+CSII. This appears to be clinically meaningful based on cut scores for measures. CGM is associated with lower A1c independent of being used alone or with CSII.

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