Renal vascular lesions (RVL) are rare and their morphological spectrum remains largely unknown, particularly in children. In this study, we characterize the clinicopathological features of RVL in a cohort of twelve children. Seven lesions were classified as previously recognized entities: vascular malformations (four), papillary endothelial hyperplasia (two), and pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary hemangioma) (one). An eighth lesion showed nonspecific findings which were interpreted as reactive during our review. The remaining four cases presented either prenatally, at birth, or shortly after birth and were morphologically similar. These were characterized by a peculiar pattern of capillary proliferation with entrapment of native renal structures, variable amounts of extramedullary hematopoiesis and reactive lymphocytes, foci of infarction and hemorrhage, and the presence of feeding and draining vessels at their periphery. To our knowledge, this represents a previously undescribed congenital vascular lesion involving the kidney, which we have descriptively and provisionally termed congenital capillary proliferation of the kidney (CCPK). While it is unclear whether CCPK represents a malformation or neoplastic proliferation, it shows overlapping features with congenital hemangioma of the liver (solitary congenital hepatic hemangioma - SCHH) and congenital nonprogressive hemangioma (CNH) of the skin and soft tissue, suggesting a possible common pathogenesis among these three entities.