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Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

Saums, M. K.; King, C. C.; Adams, J. C.; Sheth, A. N.; Badell, M. L.; Young, M.; Yee, L. M.; Chadwick, E. G.; Jamieson, D. J.; Haddad, L. B.

Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov 26; 134(6):1205-1214


OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to women without HIV, and to evaluate the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with ART regimens or timing of ART initiation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among two overlapping pregnancy cohorts using preexisting databases at a single tertiary care hospital: all pregnant women who delivered during years 2016-2018 (cohort 1) and all women living with HIV who delivered during years 2011-2018 (cohort 2). The primary outcome for both cohorts was any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy; gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were also examined separately. The primary exposure variables were HIV status for cohort 1 and ART regimen (integrase strand transfer inhibitor-containing, protease inhibitor-containing, or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing) for cohort 2. For estimation of risk ratios (RRs), we used a modified Poisson regression with robust error variances. Multivariate models among the women living with HIV in cohort 2 were tested for a statistical interaction between ART regimen and timing of initiation. RESULTS: In cohort 1, among 80 women living with HIV compared with 3,464 women without HIV, there was no difference in the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (29% in women living with HIV vs 30% in women without HIV, adjusted RR 0.9, 95% CI 0.6-1.3). In cohort 2, among 265 women living with HIV, integrase strand transfer inhibitor-containing regimens were associated with an increased risk for any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (25% among integrase strand transfer inhibitor vs 10% among protease inhibitor, adjusted RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.1) and gestational hypertension (20% among integrase strand transfer inhibitor vs 8% among protease inhibitor, adjusted RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.9) compared with protease inhibitor-containing regimens. Timing of ART initiation was not associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, nor did it significantly alter the associations between ART regimen and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSION: Overall the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was similar among women living with HIV on ART and women without HIV. With greater integrase strand transfer inhibitor use, the greater frequency of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with these regimens compared with protease inhibitor-containing regimens warrants future evaluation using cohorts with greater sample size.

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