Transgender individuals identify as a gender different than their sex designated at birth. Transgender athletes, as the name implies, are transgender individuals who participate in sports/athletics. By reviewing the literature relevant to transgender athletes and adding commentary on important considerations, this article acts as a primer for the sports medicine clinician on the care of transgender athletes. We cover terminology, epidemiology, policy, and relevant medical considerations. Literature relevant for medical care specific to transgender athletes is still relatively sparse. We highlight many recommended areas of future research with the potential to make valuable contributions to evidence-based sports medicine practice for this population.