Augmented Renal Clearance Using Population-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients

Avedissian, S. N.; Bradley, E.; Zhang, D.; Bradley, J. S.; Nazer, L. H.; Tran, T. M.; Nguyen, A.; Le, J.

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun 24; 18(9):e388-e394

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of augmented renal clearance in critically ill pediatric patients using vancomycin clearance; 2) derive the pharmacokinetic model that best describes vancomycin clearance in critically ill pediatric patients; and 3) correlate vancomycin clearance with creatinine clearance estimated by modified Schwartz or Cockcroft-Gault. DESIGN: Retrospective, two-center, cohort study from 2003 to 2016. SETTING: Clinical drug monitoring services in the PICUs at two tertiary care, teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Children from 1 to 21 years old. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Identify patients with augmented renal clearance (vancomycin clearance >/= 130 mL/min/1.73 m used as definition of augmented renal clearance). Derive final population-based pharmacokinetic model and estimate individual patient pharmacokinetic parameters. Compare estimated glomerular filtration rate (modified Schwartz or Cockcroft-Gault depending on age < or >/= 17 yr) with vancomycin clearance. Augmented renal clearance was identified in 12% of 250 total subjects. The final population-based pharmacokinetic model for vancomycin clearance (L/hr) was 0.118 x weight (e). Median vancomycin clearance in those with versus without augmented renal clearance were 141.3 and 91.7 mL/min/1.73 m, respectively (p < 0.001). By classification and regression tree analysis, patients who were more than 7.9 years old were significantly more likely to experience augmented renal clearance (17% vs 4.6% in those

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