BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Limited studies have investigated the risk of cerebrovascular events associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in subjects at high risk. We examined the short-term (defined as 30-day period) effect of selective and nonselective NSAIDs use on the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in patients with hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a case-crossover study using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 1653 hypertensive subjects with stroke (defined as International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-CM-codes: 433.x, 434.x, and 436.x for ischemic stroke; 430 and 431 for hemorrhagic stroke) in 2010. We investigated the transient effect of NSAIDs use on stroke using conditional logistic regressions with the adjustment of potential confounders. RESULTS: The results suggested that NSAIDs use during the 30 days before stroke was associated with a 1.57-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke, but not of hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.97 for ischemic stroke; and adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-2.40 for hemorrhagic stroke). When classifying NSAIDs into selective and nonselective groups, nonselective NSAIDs use significantly increased the risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.94), but not of hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-2.73). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate an increased risk of stroke, specifically ischemic stroke among hypertensive subjects with NSAIDs use. It would be important to closely monitor the transient effect of initial NSAIDs treatment, particularly in patients with hypertension.