PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to analyze the association of copy number gain of 1q in favorable-histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) within each tumor stage and with 1p and 16q copy number loss and/or loss of heterozygosity. METHODS: Unilateral FHWTs from 1,114 patients enrolled in National Wilms Tumor Study-5 that were informative for 1p and 16q microsatellite markers (previously determined) and informative for 1q gain, 1p loss, and 16q loss using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were analyzed. RESULTS: Eight-year EFS was 86% (95% CI, 84% to 88%) for the entire cohort. Of 1,114 patients, 317 tumors (28%) displayed 1q gain. Eight-year EFS was 77% for those with 1q gain and 90% for those lacking 1q gain (P < .001). Eight-year OS was 88% for those with 1q gain and 96% for those lacking 1q gain (P < .001). Within each disease stage, 1q gain was associated with inferior EFS (stage I, 85% v 95%; P = .0052; stage II, 81% v 87%; P = .0775; stage III, 79% v 89%; P = .01; stage IV, 64% v 91%; P = .001). OS was significantly inferior in patients with stage I (P < .0015) and stage IV disease (P = .011). With multivariable analysis, 1q gain was associated with an increased relative risk of relapse of 2.4 (P < .001), whereas 1p loss was not, despite significance on univariable analysis. CONCLUSION: Gain of 1q is associated with inferior survival in unilateral FHWTs and may be used to guide risk stratification in future studies.