One of the most critical differences between the posttransplant care of children and adults is the requirement in children to maintain a state of health that supports normal physical and psychological growth and development. Most children with organ failure have some degree of growth failure and developmental delay, which is not quickly reversed after successful transplantation. The challenge for clinicians caring for these children is to use strategies that minimize these deficits before transplantation and provide maximal opportunity for recovery of normal developmental processes during posttransplant rehabilitation. The effect of chronic organ failure, frequently complicated by malnutrition, on growth potential and cognitive development is poorly understood. This review presents a summary of what is known regarding risk factors for suboptimal growth and development following solid-organ transplant and describe possible strategies to improve these outcomes.