OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rates of guideline adherence and associations with voiding cystourethrogram result. The American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines recommend voiding cystourethrogram after abnormal renal ultrasound or 2 febrile urinary tract infections. It is unclear whether guideline adherence increases vesicoureteral reflux detection. Additionally, guidelines targeting children 2-24 months are often applied to other ages. METHODS: Children undergoing voiding cystourethrogram from January 2012 to December 2013 at 1 institution were retrospectively reviewed. Children with known genitourinary abnormalities were excluded. The primary outcome was guideline adherence. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Subgroup analysis of children 2-24 months was completed. RESULTS: Voiding cystourethrograms from 365 children were included in the primary analysis, including 187 (51.2%) aged 2-24 months. Overall, 60.3% of voiding cystourethrograms were ordered in accordance with the guidelines. Urologists/nephrologists were more likely to adhere to ordering guidelines than pediatricians/others (76.4% vs 51.7%, odds ratio 3.0 [1.9-4.9], P <.001). Subgroup analysis in children 2-24 months revealed similar findings (76.4% vs 51.5%, odds ratio 3.0 [1.5-6.2], P=.002). Voiding cystourethrograms were abnormal in 31.8% overall and 26.2% aged 2-24 months. Guideline adherence was associated with increased likelihood of abnormal voiding cystourethrogram among all children (P=.02), but not among children 2-24 months (P=.95). Older age, white race, and guideline adherence remained significantly associated with abnormal voiding cystourethrogram in a multiple logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Guideline adherence was more likely among urologists/nephrologists than pediatricians/others and was not associated with abnormal voiding cystourethrogram among children 2-24 months. Multicenter evaluation is necessary to determine if ordering recommendations should be revised.