BACKGROUND:: Pediatric scoliosis often requires operative treatment, yet few studies have examined readmission rates in this patient population. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence, reasons, and independent risk factors for 30-day unplanned readmissions following scoliosis surgery. METHODS:: A retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement-Pediatric database from 2012 to 2013 was performed. Patients undergoing spinal arthrodesis for progressive infantile scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, or scoliosis due to other medical conditions were identified and divided between 2 groups: patients with unplanned 30-day readmissions (Readmitted) and patients with no unplanned readmissions (Non-Readmitted). Multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine independent risk factors for readmissions. RESULTS:: A total of 3482 children were identified, of which 120 (3.4%) had an unplanned readmission. A majority of patients had a readmission due to a surgical site complication regardless of scoliosis etiology. Risk factors for readmission included obesity (P<0.001) and posterior fusion of 13 or more vertebrae (P=0.029) for idiopathic scoliosis, impaired cognition (P=0.009) for progressive infantile scoliosis, and pelvic fixation (P=0.025) and American Society of Anesthesiologist >/=3 (P=0.048) for scoliosis due to other conditions. CONCLUSIONS:: We present 30-day readmissions risk factors based on independent patient and procedural risk factors. This may be useful in the clinical management of patients following scoliosis surgery, specifically for the role of preoperative and predischarge risk stratification. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Level III-prognostic.