INTRODUCTION: X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), characterized by severe hypotonia, weakness, respiratory distress, and early mortality, is rare and natural history studies are few. METHODS: RECENSUS is a multicenter chart review of male XLMTM patients characterizing disease burden and unmet medical needs. Data were collected between September 2014 and June 2016. RESULTS: Analysis included 112 patients at six clinical sites. Most recent patient age recorded was =18 months for 40 patients and >18 months for 72 patients. Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 3.7 (3.7) months and 54.3 (77.1) months, respectively. Mortality was 44% (64% =18 months; 32% >18 months). Premature delivery occurred in 34/110 (31%) births. Nearly all patients (90%) required respiratory support at birth. In the first year of life, patients underwent an average of 3.7 surgeries and spent 35% of the year in the hospital. DISCUSSION: XLMTM is associated with high mortality, disease burden, and healthcare utilization. Muscle Nerve 57: 550-560, 2018.