Tracheal stenosis in children is primarily caused by congenital complete cartilage tracheal rings. These infants present with severe respiratory distress early in life. The purpose of this review is to examine the history of surgical intervention for infants and children with congenital tracheal stenosis. Most of the significant advances in the surgical treatment of patients with congenital tracheal stenosis have occurred over the past 50 years. The highlights of the historical events include the first pulmonary artery sling repair (1953), tracheal resection (1958), cartilage tracheoplasty (1981), pericardial tracheoplasty (1982), slide tracheoplasty (1989), homograft tracheoplasty (1994), and tracheal autograft (1996). The results of surgical intervention on patients with congenital tracheal stenosis have steadily improved, particularly during the past 20 years. Most successful centers are using cardiopulmonary bypass, simultaneous repair of associated pulmonary artery sling and cardiac anomalies, and the current procedure of choice-slide tracheoplasty. During the past 50 years, significant advances have been made in the care of infants with congenital tracheal stenosis. The outlook for these children is currently quite good, and successful outcomes are particularly evident at institutions with a careful multidisciplinary approach to these patients.